William D. Richard, Ph.D.

Associate Professor

Office: 538 Jolley Hall
Tel. (314) 935-4676
email: wdr@wustl.edu

University of Missouri-Rolla
B.S. (summa cum laude), M.S., Ph.D. 1983, 1985, 1988

Industry Experience
Linscan Systems, Inc.

Research & Teaching
Computer engineering
Medical instrumentation
Ultrasonic Imaging
Ultrasound applications

IEEE (Senior Member)
Sigma Xi

Honors and Awards
Eta Kappa Nu
Tau Beta Pi
Phi Kappa Phi
Phi Eta Sigma
General Motors Fellow (1986-88)

Since joining Washington University in 1988, Professor Richard has continued the development of architectures and image processing algorithms for ultrasonic imaging. His 1989 paper on real-time gain correction and his 1994 paper on real-time scan conversion (with Professor Arthur) were key to the development of many low-cost commercial ultrasonic imaging systems. Professor Richard developed a low-cost PCI-bus based system based on these techniques in 1995 for prostate localization during radiation treatment at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and a second system in 1996 to localize brain tumors during neurosurgery at the Cleveland Clinic as part of the CAMIS (Computer-Assisted Minimally-Invasive Surgery) project.

The Universal Serial Bus (USB) ultrasound probes developed by Professor Richard, which require only a laptop or tablet to form a complete ultrasonic imaging system, were named by Popular Science Magazine as one of the Best 100 Innovations of 2006. The same year, the International Academy of Science named the USB probes one of the top 10 finalists for their "Technology of the Year Award." With funding from Microsoft Research, Professor Richard combined his USB probes with a Windows Mobile (TM) smartphone to develop the first smartphone-based ultrasound imaging system. The commercial version of this system was the first smartphone-based diagnostic device cleared by the FDA, and it was named by Popular Science as one of the Best 100 Innovations of 2012.

Professor Richard was awarded a patent on a novel technique for real-time synthetic focus ultrasound imaging in 2004. He served on the editorial board for Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics for over twenty years.

Professor Richard regularly teaches the undergraduate computer engineering logic design course CSE 260, the undergraduate computer engineering architecture course CSE 362, the undergraduate computer engineering switching theory course CSE 460, and the capstone senior computer engineering design course CSE 462.

Selected Publications and Patents

W.D. Richard, "Using Babbage's Difference Engine to Introduce Computer Architecture," Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Microelectronic Systems Education, Lake Louise, Canada, May 11-12, 2017.

W.D. Richard, M. Manar, and J. Tang, "How to Digitize Hundreds of Signals with a Single Xilinx FPGAs," Xilinx Xcell Journal, Issue 94, 2016.

W.D. Richard, "Efficent Parallel Real-Time Upsampling with Xilinx FPGAs," Xilinx Xcell Journal, Issue 89, 2014.

W.D. Richard, "Efficent Parallel Real-Time Upsampling of Ultrasound Vectors," Technical Report 2013-14, Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, 2013.

D.D. Limbrick, S. Lake, M. Talcott, B. Alexander, S. Wight, J. Willie, W.D. Richard, G. Genin, E.C. Leuthardt, "The Baric Probe: A Novel Long-Term Implantable Intracranial Pressure Monitor with Ultrasound-Based Interrogation," Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 518-524, December, 2012.

W.A. Steelman and W.D. Richard, "Performance of a New GPU-Based Scan-Conversion Algorithm Implemented Using OpenGL," Ultrasonic Imaging, vol. 33, pp. 143-150, 2011.

W.D. Richard, D.M. Zar, and R. Solek, "A Low-Cost B-Mode USB Ultrasound Probe," Ultrasonic Imaging, vol. 30, pp. 21-28, 2008.

L. Sun, X. Xu, W.D. Richard, C. Feng, J.A. Johnson, and K.K. Shung, "A High-Frame Rate Duplex Ultrasound BioMicroscopy for Small Animal Imaging In Vivo," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 2039-2049, August, 2008.

L. Sun, W.D. Richard, J.M. Cannata, C.C. Feng, J.A. Johnson, J.T. Yen, and K.K. Shung, "A High-Frame Rate High-Frequency Ultrasonic System for Cardiac Imaging in Mice," IEEE Transactions on Ultrasaonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, vol. 54, pp. 1648-1655, 2007.

W.D. Richard, "Apparatus and System for Real-Time Synthetic Focus Ultrasonic Imaging," US Patent 6,719,693, Issued April 2004.

W.D. Richard, "A Scalable Architecture for Real-Time Synthetic-Focus Imaging," Ultrasonic Imaging, vol. 25, pp. 151-161, 2003.

W.D. Richard, D.M. Zar, E.L. LaPresto, and C.P. Steiner, "A Low-Cost PCI-Bus-Based Ultrasound System for Use in Image-Guided Neurosurgery," Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, vol. 23, no. 5, Sept.-Oct. 1999.

W.D. Richard, D.E. Taylor, and D.M. Zar, "A Capstone Computer Engineering Design Course," IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 42, pp. 288-294, Nov. 1999.

W.D. Richard and C.G. Keen, "Automated Texture-Based Segmentation of Ultrasound Images of the Prostate," Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 131-140, May-June 1996.

W.D. Richard, J.R. Cox Jr., A.M. Engebretson, J. Fritts, B.L. Gottlieb, and C. Horn, "Production Quality Video Over Broadband Networks: A System Description and Two Interactive Applications," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communication, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 806-815, June 1995.

W.D. Richard and R.M. Arthur, "Real-Time Ultrasonic Scan Conversion via Linear Interpolation of Oversampled Vectors," Ultrasonic Imaging, vol. 16, pp. 109-123, April 1994.

W.D. Richard, J.W. Trobaugh, K.R. Smith, and R.D. Bucholz, "Frameless Stereotactic Ultrasonography: Method and Applications," Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, vol. 18, no. 5, 1994.

W.D. Richard, J.W. Trobaugh, and D.T. Trobaugh, "Three-Dimensional Imaging with Stereotactic Ultrasonography," IEEE Engin. Med. Biol., vol. 15(4), 87-90, July/August 1996.

W.D. Richard and R.O. Gregory, "A GaAsFET SPICE Model for Active Filter Tuning Purposes," International Journal of Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Computer-Aided Engineering, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 175-183, April 1994.

W.D. Richard, C.K. Grimmell, K. Bedigan, and K.J. Frank, "A Method for Three-Dimensional Prostate Imaging Using Transrectal Ultrasound," Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 73-79, March-April 1993.

W.D. Richard, P. Costa, and K. Sato, "The Washington University Broadband Terminal," Special Issue on High-Speed Host/Network Interface, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 276-282, Feb. 1993.

W.D. Richard, J.R. Cox, B. Gottlieb, and K. Krieger, "The Washington University Multimedia System," ACM Multimedia Systems, vol. 1, pp. 120-131, 1993.

W.D. Richard and J.S. Prater, "Segmenting Ultrasound Images of the Prostate Using Neural Networks," Ultrasonic Imaging, vol. 14, pp. 159-185, April 1992.

W.D. Richard, "An Educational Image Processing/Machine Vision System," IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 34, pp. 129-131, Feb. 1991.

W.D. Richard, "A New Time-Gain Correction Method for Standard B-Mode Ultrasound Imaging," IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, vol. 8, pp. 283-285, Sept. 1989.