Device-to-device (D2D) communication technology for fifth generation (5G) mobile networks enables user equipment (UE) to communicate directly with other UEs without or with partial involvement of the network infrastructure, such as mobile access points or mobile base stations. There are popular low-level D2D techniques available for short-range wireless transmissions, such as Bluetooth and WiFi-Direct, and typically they use license-exempt bands. Most of the cellular technologies, however, do not support direct over-the-air communication between end users. The traditional cellular network is based on the “cells”, which are the fundamental unit within the radio access network. To achieve the device-centric communication envisaged for 5G networks, there is a need for a fundamental change in the design structure of current cellular networks. This is indeed at the core for device-centric communication, leading to different mobile base station density, micro-clouds on base stations, more alternatives for frequency re-usability, and additional spectrum coexistence of frequency bands.
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