K. Ramakrishnan and R. Jain, "A Binary Feedback Scheme for Congestion Avoidance in Computer Networks with Connectionless Network Layer," 25th anniversary issue of ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, Vol. 25, No. 1, January 1995, pp. 138-156, (Reprinted from ACM SIGCOMM 1988)

We propose a scheme for congestion avoidance in networks using a connectionless protocol at the network layer. The scheme uses a minimal amount of feedback from the network to the users, who adjust the amount of traffic allowed into the network. The routers in the network detect congestion and set a congestion-indication bit on packets flowing in the forward direction. The congestion indication is communicated back to the users through the transport-level acknowledgment. The scheme is distributed, adapts to the dynamic state of the network, converges to the optimal operating point, is quite simple to implement, and has low overhead. The scheme maintains fairness in service provided to multiple sources. This paper presents the scheme and the analysis that went into the choice of the various decision mechanisms. We also address the performance of the scheme under transient changes in the network and pathological overload conditions.

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This is a reprint of the paper with the same title published in SIGCOMM.

It was selected as the best paper in the conference and an updated version was published in ACM Transactions on Computer Systems.

This paper is a winner of SIGCOMM Test of Time Paper Award

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