Bobby Vandalore, Wu-chi Feng, Raj Jain, Sonia Fahmy "A Survey of Application Layer Techniques for Adaptive Streaming of Multimedia," Real-Time Imaging, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2001, p. 221-235.

The current Internet only supports best-effort traffic. New high-speed technologies such as ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), gigabit Ethernet, fast Ethernet, and frame relay, have spurred higher user expectations. These technologies are expected to support real-time applications such as video-on-demand, Internet telephony, distance education and video-broadcasting. Towards this end, networking methods such as service classes and integrated service models are being developed. Today's Internet is a heterogeneous networking environment. In such an environment, resources available to multimedia applications vary. To adapt to the changes in network conditions, both networking techniques and application layer techniques have been proposed. In this paper, we focus on the application techniques, including methods based on compression algorithm features, layered encoding, rate shaping, adaptive error control, and bandwidth smoothing. We also discuss operating system methods to support adaptive multimedia. Throughout the paper, we discuss how feedback from lower networking layers can be used by these application-level adaptation schemes to deliver the highest quality content.

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A Survey of Application Layer Techniques for Adaptive Streaming of Multimedia

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