Wireless Sensor Network
Technology for Clinical Monitoring
Department of Computer
Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Washington University
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Washington University
Institute of Clinical and Translational Sciences, Washington University
Bailey, Yixin Chen, Marin Kollef, Chenyang
PhD Students: Rahav Dor, Bo Li
Alumni: Chris Brooks, Octav Chipara, Greg Hackmann, Yi Mao, Catalin Roman, Zhicheng Yang
Collaborator: Roger Chamberlain
detection and intervention are essential for preventing clinical
deterioration in patients. We are developing a two-tiered
clinical warning system designed to identify the signs of clinical
deterioration and provide early warning of serious clinical events at
general hospital units. The ﬁrst tier of the system automatically
identiﬁes patients at risk of clinical deterioration from existing
electronic medical record databases. The second tier performs
real-time clinical event detection based on vital sign data collected
from on-body wireless sensors attached to those high-risk
patients. Wireless sensor networks play an important role in
clinical warning by collecting real-time vital signs for clinical
decision support. We have developed and deployed a large-scale
wireless clinical monitoring system that encompasses portable wireless
pulse oximeters, a wireless relay network spanning multiple hospital
ﬂoors, and integration with electronic medical record databases.
Our system has been deployed over a 14-month clinical trial in six
hospital wards of Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri.
Our experiences show the feasibility of achieving reliable vital sign
collection using a wireless sensor network integrated with hospital IT
infrastructure and procedures. We also identify and overcome
technical and non-technical elements that pose challenges in a
real-world hospital environment and provide guidelines for successful
and eﬃcient deployment of similar systems. The convergence of
wireless sensors, mobile computing, data mining and electronic medical
record in clinical warning systems will lead to enhanced quality of
care for patients in hospitals as well as outpatients in their everyday
Wireless Sensors Relay Medical Insight to Patients and Caregivers, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 29(3): 8-12, May 2012.
Washington University Researchers Seek to Bring Mobility to ICU Patients, RFID Journal, August 2011.
Mesh Network Monitors Patients in Virtual ICU, British Journal of Healthcare Computing, August 2011.
Hospital Tests Wireless Patient Monitoring, UPI, August 2011.
Clinical Warning System Could Change Healthcare, Nurse.com, August 2011.
St. Louis Hospital Tests Wireless System That Monitors Vital Signs, iHealthBeat, Augist 2011.
Wireless Network in Hospital Monitors Vital Signs, Washington University News Release, August 2011.
M.H. Kollef, K. Heard, Y. Chen, C. Lu, N. Martin and T. Bailey, Mortality
and Length of Stay Trends Following Implementation of a Rapid Response
System and Real-Time Automated Clinical Deterioration Alerts, American Journal of Medical Quality, accepted.
Y. Wang, W. Chen, K. Heard, M. Kollef, T. Bailey, Z. Cui, Y. He, C. Lu and Y. Chen, Mortality Prediction in ICUs Using a Novel Time-Slicing Cox Regression Method, American Medical Informatics Association Annual Symposium (AMIA-15), November 2015. Distinguished Paper Award
M.H. Kollef, Y. Chen, K. Heard, G.N. LaRossa, C. Lu, N.R. Martin, N. Martin, S.T. Micek and T. Bailey, A Randomized Trial of Real-Time Automated Clinical Deterioration Alerts Sent to a Rapid Response Team, Journal of Hospital Medicine, 9(7): 424–429, July 2014.
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Deterioration in Patients Hospitalized on General Medical Wards,
Journal of Hospital Medicine, 8(5): 236–242, May 2013.
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Experiences with an End-To-End Wireless Clinical Monitoring System,
Conference on Wireless Health (WH'12), October 2012.
Mao, W. Chen, Y. Chen, C. Lu, M. Kollef and T.C. Bailey, An Integrated
Data Mining Approach to Real-time Clinical Monitoring and Deterioration
Warning, ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and
Data Mining (KDD'12), August 2012.
Y. Mao, Y. Chen, G. Hackmann, M. Chen, C. Lu, M. Kollef and T.C. Bailey, Early Deterioration Warning for Hospitalized Patients by Mining Clinical Data, International Journal of Knowledge Discovery in Bioinformatics, 2(3):1-20, 2012. (Extended version of the BioDM'11 paper.)
Mao, Y. Chen, G. Hackmann, M. Chen, C. Lu, M. Kollef and T.C. Bailey,
Medical Data Mining for Early Deterioration Warning in General Hospital
Wards, ICDM Workshop on Biological Data Mining and its Applications in Healthcare (BioDM'11), December 2011.
G. Hackmann, M. Chen, O. Chipara, C. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Kollef and T.C. Bailey, Toward a Two-Tier Clinical Warning System for Hospitalized Patients, American Medical Informatics Association Annual Symposium (AMIA'11), October 2011.
Chipara, C. Lu, T.C. Bailey and G.-C. Roman, Reliable Clinical
Monitoring using Wireless Sensor Networks: Experience in a Step-down
Hospital Unit, ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems
(SenSys'10), November 2010.
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O. Chipara, G.Hackmann, C. Lu, W. Smart and G.-C. Roman, Practical Modeling and Prediction of Radio Coverage in Indoor Sensor Networks, ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN'10), April 2010.
O. Chipara, C. Brooks, S. Bhattacharya, C. Lu, R.D. Chamberlain, G.-C. Roman, and T.C. Bailey, Reliable Real-time Clinical Monitoring Using Sensor Network Technology, American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) Annual Symposium, November 2009.
Wireless Clinical Monitoring at Scale, Distinguished Lecture, DGIST Global Innovation Festival (DGIF), November 2013.
Wireless Clinical Monitoring at Scale, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, November 2013.
Toward Wireless Clinical Warning in Hospitals and Beyond, Illinois Institute of Technology, September 2013.
Toward a Two-Tier Clinical Warning System for Hospitalized Patients, American Medical Informatics Association Annual Symposium (AMIA'11), October 2011.
Reliable Clinical Monitoring using Wireless Sensor Networks: Experience in a Step-down Hospital Unit, ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys'10), November 2010.
Toward Wireless Clinical Monitoring in General Hospital Units, PRECISE Seminar, University of Pennsylvania, October 2010.
The project described was supported by Award Number UL1RR024992
from the National Center For Research Resources and BJH Foundation. The content is solely
the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent
the official views of the National Center for Research Resources or the
National Institutes of Health.