Wireless Networking and Next Generation Internet Architecture Research
The Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) Department at
Washington University in Saint Louis has a very aggressive program of
research in Networking and Telecommunications. We are participating in
many industry forums such as WiMAX Forum, IEEE 802,
Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF), ANSI, International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and Telecommunications Industry of America (TIA).
We collaborate with industry to ensure that
we are working on relevant problems of current interest and that our
solutions are adopted by the industry.
at Washington University in Saint Louis
This page describes the research projects lead by Professor Raj Jain.
Current Research Projects:
- Internet 3.0: Architecture for the Next Generation Internet
- Next Generation Wireless Networks
- Communication and Modeling for Green Buildings
- Communications for Emergency Situations
- Resource Management in Wireless Networks
- Mobile Video Modeling
- Network Security
- Congestion Control and Traffic Management
- TCP Persistence
- Energy Efficient Protocols
1. Internet 3.0: Architecture for the Next Generation Internet
The key trend driving the growth of Internet over the last decade is the
profusion of services over the Internet. Google, Facebook, YouTube and
similar services form the bulk of the Internet traffic. Cloud computing
and proliferation of mobile devices has lead to further growth in
distributed services over the Internet. As part of our Internet 3.0 project, we are currently developing an open
service delivery network (openSDN) architecture. openSDN will allow
networking equipment companies to develop openSDN routers
that will allow many application service providers (ASPs) to share a
network and achieve the features required for widely distributed
services, such as, load balancing, fault tolerance, replication,
multihoming, and mobility that are customized for their application.
proposed architecture is evolutionary in the sense that it can coexist
and is backward compatible with the current Internet. It can be used
both for services that reside on multiple virtual machines inside a
cloud as well as those that are distributed over multiple clouds. The
key component underlying openSDN is a rule-based delegation mechanism
that allows application services to specify a set of rules for handling
its traffic. These may include rules for selecting the instances among
multiple replicas of the server, how to load-balance among different
instances, what to do under network and instance failure (due to
security attack or hardware malfunction), etc.
openSDN cleanly separates
control and data planes. Control plane provides a secure interface for
registration and distribution of specific rules, and translates the
service rules to forwarding rules that are then sent to the data plane,
which enforces these rules. All openSDN-aware entities have names, IDs
and locators that help maintain multiple instances of services and allow
the services to move transparently inside a cloud or among many clouds.
An innovative naming system is used to resolve entity names to IDs. The
naming system is designed to be backward compatible with the current
domain name service (DNS) so that legacy hosts and services queries are
Applications of openSDN include Private WANs,
datacenter networks, cloud services, telecom services, online ervices,
distributed application networks, science, educational and research
computing, and defense networks.
This project is funded partly by NSF and was funded in the past by Intel Corporation.
Related Recent Publications:
- J. Pan, S. Paul, R. Jain, "A Survey of Research on Future Internet
Architectures,"IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 49, No. 7, July 2011,
pp. 26-36, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/internet.htm.
This is a short survey of world-wide current research in Future Internet
Architecture and includes our view of what features new architectures
- S. Paul, J. Pan, R. Jain, "Architectures for the Future Networks and
the Next Generation Internet: A Survey," Computer Communications, UK,
Volume 34, Issue 1, 15 January 2011, Pages 2-42,
A detailed 40-page survey of current research in clean-slate architectures.
- J. Pan, R. Jain, S. Paul, C. So-In, "MILSA: A New Evolutionary
Architecture for Scalability, Mobility, and Multihoming in the Future
Internet," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 28,
No. 8, October 2010, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/milsajsc.htm
Describes a new ID/Locator split architecture with innovative ID
- S. Paul, R. Jain, J. Pan, "A Future Internet Architecture Based on
De-conflated Identities," Proceedings of IEEE Globecom 2010, Miami, FL,
December 6-10, 2010, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/deconf.htm
This architecture allows the ability to express organizational policies
separately and thus more naturally, from the underlying infrastructure
- S. Paul, R. Jain, J. Pan, "Multi-Tier Diversified Architecture for
the Next Generation Internet," Proceedings of International Conference
on Cloud Computing and Virtualization (CCV 2010), Singapore, May 17-18,
In this paper,
we propose a next generation Internet architecture that will allow
natural sharing of resources among multiple organizations by dynamically
reconfiguring and creating a virtual network for a particular
- S. Paul, R. Jain, J. Pan, M. Bowman, "A Vision of the Next
Generation Internet: A Policy Oriented Perspective," Proceedings of
British Computer Society (BCS) International Conference on Visions of
Computer Science, Imperial College, London, September 22-24, 2008,
This paper discusses
issues involved in design network architectures where hosts, users,
data, and network infrastructure belong to different organizations.
- R. Jain, "Internet 3.0: Ten Problems with Current Internet
Architecture and Solutions for the Next Generation," in Proceedings of
Military Communications Conference (MILCOM 2006), Washington, DC,
October 23-25, 2006, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/gina.htm.
This paper points out the problems with the current TCP/IP based
networking architectures and includes discussion on ownership and
control issues that lead to the formulation of concept of realms.
Next Generation Wireless Networks
Many of the concepts of Internet 3.0 apply to wireless networks also.
- Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, Subharthi Paul, and Jianli Pan, "Virtualization Architecture using the ID/Locator Split Concept for Future Wireless Networks (FWNs)," Computer Networks, Special Issue on Wireless for the Future Internet, Vol. 55, Issue 2, February 2011, pp. 415-430, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/ilswrl.htm
- Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, Subharthi Paul, Jianli Pan, "Future Wireless Networks: Key Issues and a Survey (ID/Locator Split Perspective)," International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (IJCNDS), August 2010, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/fwn_ijcn.htm
- Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, Subharthi Paul and Jianli Pan, "Virtual ID: ID/Locator Split in a Mobile IP Environment for Mobility, Multihoming and Location Privacy for the Next Generation Wireless Networks," International Journal of Internet Protocol Technology 2010 - Vol. 5, No.3, pp. 142-153, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/vid_ijip.htm
Communication and Modeling for Green Buildings
Commercial and residential buildings are a major source of energy
consumption. A number of products are appearing on the market that allow
monitoring and control of various energy consuming devices. However,
these devices from different manufacturers are often not able to
communicate with each other because they are either not networked or use
proprietary protocols. Also, the buildings often don't have network
wiring at locations where energy consuming devices are usually located.
A fully networked energy monitoring and control system is required to
realize the potential energy savings while maintaining comfort for the
In collaboration with the Department of Computer Science and Department of Energy, Environmental
and Chemical Engineering at Washington University, we plan to develop methods to
monitor, model, and control energy usage in commercial and residential
buildings. In particular, we want to develop easy methods to collect and
analyze usage data. One of the problems in collecting the data is to
network various monitoring devices. Although it is possible to network
all monitoring equipment, this is feasible only in new buildings.
Existing buildings may not have networking facilities or network wiring.
Wireless communication is sometimes feasible in smaller distances. For
larger distances we need more innovative networking techniques such as
networking via electrical wires.
This is a new project funded by Washington University's I-CARES program.
Communications for Emergency Situations
Japan has a cellular Early Earthquake Warning (EEW) system in addition
to the usual radio and television based systems. United States has only
radio and television based emergency warning systems which are
inadequate since most people do not listen to radio or watch television
24 hours a day (particularly those at work places). A cellular system is
required since cell phone has now become the only communication device
that can reach most of the population 24 hours/day 7-days a week.
There are three goals of this project: First, we will study the cellular
EEW of Japan and its use in the March 11th earthquake in Japan. Second,
we will study the problems that were encountered leading to so many
deaths and missing persons. Third, we will use such patterns and inputs
from the field to help develop a better cellular EEW for USA that uses
the best of Japanese system and avoids its problems. In particular, we
would like to explore new cellular communication modes such as
tower-less phone-to-phone direct communication that is possible with new
WiFi equipped smart phones.
This is a new project funded by NSF.
Resource Management in Wireless Networks
802.16e based WiMAX networks promise the best available quality of
experience for mobile data service users. Unlike wireless LANs, WiMAX
networks incorporate several quality of service (QoS) mechanisms at the
Media Access Control (MAC) level for guaranteed services for data, voice
and video. The problem of assuring QoS is basically that of how to
allocate available resources among users in order to meet the QoS
criteria such as delay, delay jitter and throughput requirements. IEEE
standard does not include a standard scheduling mechanism and leaves it
for implementer differentiation. Scheduling is, therefore, of special
interest to all WiMAX equipment makers and service providers. We have developed and analyzed several scheduling mechanisms for WiMAX.
Most of the resource management studies
require simulation. It is important
to have some common features among these models so that their results
can be compared. Working with the Application Working Group at the WiMAX Forum,
we have developed a standard simulation methodology that
describes the key features to be simulated, the method of simulating
these features and various parameter values to be used. This system
level methodology has been used in several public and commercial WiMAX
Related Recent Publications:
- Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, Abdel Karim Al Tamimi, "A Scheduler for Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) in IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX Networks," IEEE Systems Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4, December 2010, pp. 487-494, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/swimsysj.htm
- Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain and Abdel-Karim Al Tamimi, "Deficit Round Robin with Fragmentation Scheduling to Achieve Generalized Weighted Fairness for Resource Allocation in IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX Networks," Future Internet, October 12, 2010, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~papers/drrf_fnet.htm
- Abdel-Karim Al-Tamimi, Raj Jain, Chakchai So-In, "Modeling and Resource Allocation for HD Videos over WiMAX Broadband Wireless Networks," IEEE Communication Society Multimedia Communications Technical Committee, E-letter Vol. 5, No. 3, May 2010, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/mmtc10.htm
- Abdel Karim Al Tamimi, Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, "Modeling and Resource Allocation for Mobile Video over WiMAX Broadband Wireless Networks," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special issue on Wireless Video Transmission, April 2010, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp.354-365, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/vid_jsac.htm
- Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, and Abdel-Karim Al Tamimi, "Capacity Evaluation for IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX," Journal of Computer Systems, Networks, and Communications, Special issue on WiMAX, LTE, and WiFi Interworking, Vol. 1, No. 1, April 2010.
Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, Abdel Karim Al Tamimi, "eOCSA: An Algorithm for Burst Mapping with Strict QoS Requirements in IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX Networks," Proceedings of the Second IFIP Wireless Days Conference, Paris, France, 14-16 December 2009.
- Bong-ho Kim, Jungnam Yun, Yerang Hur, Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, Abdel-Karim Al Tamimi, "Capacity estimation and TCP performance enhancement over mobile WiMAX networks," IEEE Communications Magazine, special issue on Mobile WiMAX, Vol. 47, Issue 6, June 2009, pp. 132-141, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/capacity.htm
- Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, and Abdel-Karim Tamimi, "Scheduling in IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX Networks: Key Issues and a Survey," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), Vol. 27, No. 2, Feb 2009. http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/sched.htm
- R. Jain, C. So-in, A. Tamimi, "System Level Modeling of IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX Networks: Key Issues," IEEE Wireless Communications, Vol. 15, No. 5, October 2008, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/slm.htm
- C. So-in, R. Jain, A. Tamimi, "SWIM: A Scheduler for Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) in IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX Networks1," Proceedings of 2009 Fourth International Conference on Access Networks (AccessNets 2009), November 1-3, 2009, Hong Kong, China, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/swim.htm
- C. So-in, R. Jain, A. Tamimi, "OCSA: An algorithm for Burst Mapping in IEEE 802.16e Mobile," Proceedings of the 15th Asia Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC 2009), October 8-10, 2009, Shanghai, China, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/ocsa.htm
- Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, and Abdel-Karim Tamimi, "A Deficit Round Robin with Fragmentation Scheduler for IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX," Proceedings 2009 IEEE Sarnoff Symposium, Princeton, NJ, Mar 30-Apr 1, 2009, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/drrf.htm
Mobile Video Modeling
Proper workload characterization is important for analyzing resource management schemes.
Video streaming is
continuously acquiring a larger and larger share of Internet's traffic resulting in
a need to have a reliable video traffic model. We have analyzed
several video streams for mobile streaming and have developed a
a simple model, which we call Simplified
Seasonal ARIMA Model (SAM). This model represents most of the video streams very well.
Our library of video traces is available for other researchers to use.
Related Recent Publications:
- Abdel Karim Al Tamimi, Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, "Modeling and Resource Allocation for Mobile Video over WiMAX Broadband Wireless Networks," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Special issue on Wireless Video Transmission, Accepted December 2009.
Abdel Karim Al Tamimi, Raj Jain, Chakchai So-In, "Modeling and Generation of AVC and SVC-TS Mobile Video Traces for Broadband Access Networks," Proceedings of ACM Multimedia Systems 2010, February 22-23, 2010, Scottsdale, Arizona
- A. Tamimi, R. Jain, C. So-in, "SAM: A Simplified Seasonal ARIMA Model for Mobile Video over Wireless Broadband Networks," Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia (ISM2008), December 15-17, 2008, Berkeley, California, USA,
Distributed denial-of-service attacks (DDoS) pose an immense threat to
the Internet. The most studied solution is to let routers
probabilistically mark packets with partial path information during
packet forwarding, which is referred as Probabilistic Packet Marking
(PPM). We have shown that random marking is sufficient to
impede the victim from tracing the attackers. A simple enhancement based
on IP path length distribution makes it harder for the victim.
Key predistribution is a popular technique for key distribution in
sensor networks. We have developed
two key predistribution based scheme for heterogeneous networks
i.e., networks which consist of nodes which are stationary as well as
With the growth and acceptance of the Internet, there has been increased
interest in maintaining anonymity in the network. Using traffic
analysis, it is possible to infer who is talking to whom over a public
network. We have developed a novel approach to hide the senders and the
receivers of messages. Our protocol poses no bandwidth overhead when
there is at least some traffic while posing minimal bandwidth overhead
when there is no traffic at all.
We have developed Air to Air Communication (AAC) - a wireless protocol
designed for communication among airplanes as well as airplanes and
control centers. AAC enables the broadcast of emergency and surveillance
information such as realtime video over the network even in presence of
adverse conditions such as coordinated terrorist attacks.
AAC has the potential to
significantly enhance the security of the homeland by closely monitoring
the airplane which, if hijacked by terrorists or criminals, could be
used as weapons.
Related Recent Publications:
- V. Paruchuri, A. Durresi, Raj Jain, "On the (in)effectiveness of Probabilistic Marking for IP Traceback under DDoS Attacks," Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications Conference, (GLOBECOM) 2007, Paper #IPS06-5, Washington, DC, November 26-30, 2007, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/ppm_gc07.htm
- Vijay Bulusu, Arjan Durresi, Vamsi Paruchuri, Raj Jain, "Key Distribution in Mobile Heterogeneous Sensor Network", Proceedings IEEE GLOBECOM 2006, San Francisco, CA, November 27 - December 1, 2006, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/key.htm
- A. Durresi, V. Paruchuri, L. Barolli, Raj Jain, "Tokens for Anonymous Communication in the Internet," The 9th International Workshop on Network-Based Information Systems NBiS2006 in conjunction with the 17th International Conference on Database and Expert Systems Applications DEXA'2006, to be held in Krakow, Poland Sept. 4 - 8, 2006, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/tokens.htm
- A. Durresi, V. Paruchuri, L. Barolli, Raj Jain, "Air to Air Communication Protocol," in Proceedings of 27th IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT, March 4-11, 2006, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/aacp.htm
Congestion Control and Traffic Management
Ethernet is replacing the traditional storage networking technologies
like Fiber Channel and Infiniband in Datacenters. The key feature of
these traditional technologies that make them suitable for datacenter is
their low-loss low-delay operation. Consequently IEEE 802.1 standards
committee is developing new specification for congestion management for
Ethernet in datacenter networks.
We have developed an explicit rate control framework for Ethernet
applications. The framework
guarantees zero packet drops at the congested switch and fast
convergence to fair and stable state.
Related Recent Publications:
- Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, and Jinjing Jiang, "Enhanced Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (E-FECN) Scheme for Datacenter Ethernet Networks," Proceedings of 2008 International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (SPECTS 2008), Edinburgh, UK, June 16-18, 2008, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/efecn.htm
- Jinjing Jiang, Raj Jain, Chakchai So-In, "An Explicit Rate Control Framework for Lossless Ethernet Operation," Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) 2008, Beijing, China, 19-23 May 2008, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/icc08.htm
- Jinjing Jiang, Raj Jain, "Analysis of Backward Congestion Notification (BCN) for Ethernet Datacenter Applications," accepted for IEEE Infocom minisymposium, Anchorage, Alaska, May 7-11, 2007, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/bcn.htm
Mobile applications often get disconnected because TCP times out when a
user moves from one location and reconnects at another location. This
happens even with the use of Mobile IP since Mobile IP hides the IP
address change from TCP but does nothing to prevent it from timing out.
In our proposed PErsistent TCP
using Simple freeze (PETS) framework, we combine TCP freeze and Mobile
IP to prevent TCP from disconnecting during mobile operations.
Related Recent Publications:
- C. So-In, R. Jain, G. Dommety, "PETS: Persistent TCP using Simple Freeze," Proceedings of the First International Conference on Future Information Networks (ICFIN 2009), October 14-17, 2009, Bejing, China. http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/pets.htm
Energy Efficient Protocols
While broadcasting is a very energy-expensive protocol, it is
also widely used as a building block for a variety of other network
layer protocols, particularly in sensor networks. Therefore, reducing the energy consumption by
optimizing broadcasting is a major improvement in heterogenous sensor
networking. Our QoS Geometric Broadcast Protocol (QoS-GBP) is a distributed algorithm where nodes make local
decisions on whether to transmit based on a geometric approach.
Related Recent Publications:
- V. Paruchuri, A. Durresi, L. Barolli, Raj Jain, "QoS-Energy aware Broadcast for Sensor Networks," in Proceedings of The 8th IEEE International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms, and Networks ISPAN 2005, Las Vegas, Nevada, December 7-9, 2005, 524 - 529, http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/papers/qos_snsr.htm
Collaboration:In addition to traditional sources of research
funding, our research in the past has also been sponsored by: Intel Corporation, Huawei, and Boeing Corporation.
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